Virtual Social Networks and Rural Women Entrepreneurship

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Women entrepreneurs use virtual social networks in their professional relationships. These relationships with higher quality leads to better performance in their businesses. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of virtual social networks on improving rural women’s entrepreneurship. The statistical population of the study included all members of the Agricultural Development Specialized Holding Companies in Fars province in Iran. The study was conducted using survey and stratified random sampling methods with 269 individuals participated via questionnaires. The results indicated that virtual social networks had a favorable effect on rural women’s businesses. There was a significant difference between women in the different studied counties regarding the effects of virtual social networks on business. In addition, a significant difference was observed between women in various groups regarding the effect of virtual social networks on business. In addition, greater effect of virtual social networks on women’s businesses led to higher business resilience among the women entrepreneur and their businesses, which resulted in increasing the women’s information about business activities and their entrepreneurial activities in their businesses. Further, more use of social networks by the women led to more use of marketing methods and strategies. Therefore, it is suggested that Agricultural Development Specialized Holding Companies use the functions of virtual social networks in order to information transfer, networking and online training for members when necessary. Also provide the necessary training in the application of appropriate marketing methods and strategies to rural women entrepreneurs using these networks.

Keywords


- Akhavan, A. M. (2017). The impact of cyberspace on the improvement and development of the business environment. Journal of Preventive Approach, 1 (3), 46-54 (In Persian).
- AkhavanSarraf, A., and Arasteh, M. (2007). Women's entrepreneurship and information and communication technology. National Conference on Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Past, Present, Future, 1. Retrieved from: https://www.sid.ir (In Persian).
- Aqazadeh, H., and Esfidani, M., R. (2008). Application of information technology (IT) in sustainable competitive advantage, A case study of iran's top manufacturing companies. Journal of Business Research, 46, 89-117 (In Persian).
- Ashley, C., and Tuten, T. (2015). Creative strategies in social media marketing: An exploratory study of branded social content and consumer engagement. Psychology & Marketing, 32(1), 15-27.
- Bablan, A, Z, Moeinikia, M, Ariani, A, and the Creator, A. (2014). Virtual social networks provide an opportunity to promote entrepreneurship and a platform for competitiveness. National Conference on Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness, Retrieved from: https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ESAC02-ESAC02_080.html (In Persian).
- Banazadeh, A. (2018). Social Capital and Entrepreneurship of Rural Women: The case of Fars province Agricultural Development Specialized Holding Companies. M.Sc. thesis of department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University (In Persian).
- Bird, B., and Brush, C. (2003). A gendered perspective on organizational creation. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 26(3), 41-65.
- Boyd, D. M., and Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of computermediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
- Brush, C., Carter, N., Gatewood, E., Greene, P. and Hart, M. (2006). Growth-oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses, A Global Research Perspective. Retrieved from:  https://www.amazon.com.
- Chen, W., and Wellman, B. (2009). Net and jet: The Internet use, travel and social networks of Chinese Canadian entrepreneurs. Information, Communication & Society, 12(4), 525-547.
- Cheung, C. M., Lee, M. K., and Thadani, D. R. (2009). The impact of positive electronic word-of-mouth on consumer online purchasing decision. In World Summit on Knowledge Society (pp. 501-510). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
- Chiu, C. M., Hsu, M. H., and Wang, E. T. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision support systems, 42(3), 1872-1888.
- Connor, K. M., and Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18 (2), 76–82.
- Dabson, B. (2001). Supporting rural entrepreneurship. Exploring policy options for a new rural America, 35-48.
- Ferguson, C., Cohen, L., Pooley, J. A., and Harms, C. (2010). Resilience in small business owners. Unpublished Manuscript, Edith Cowan University. Perth, WA.
- Garrigos, F., Gil, I. and Narangajavana, Y. (2011), “The impact of social networks in the competitiveness of the firms”, in Beckford, A.M. and Larsen, J.P. (Eds). Competitiveness: Psychology, Production, Impact and Global Trends, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.
- Garrigos-Simon, F. J., Lapiedra Alcami, R., and Barbera Ribera, T. (2012). Social networks and Web 3.0: their impact on the management and marketing of organizations. Management Decision, 50(10), 1880-1890.
- Golkarfard, M., and Rezaei-Moghaddam, K. (2019). Relationship Entrepreneurship with the dimensions of rural women's empowerment in Fars province. Entrepreneurship Strategies in Agriculture, 6 (11), 10-1 (In Persian).
- Hampton, A., Cooper, S., and McGowan, P. (2009). Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology-based ventures: An exploratory study. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 193-214.
- Harris, L., and Rae, A. (2009). Social networks: the future of marketing for small business. Journal of business strategy, 30(5), 24-31.
- Imani, A., M., Hosseiniehfar, A., and Mubaraki, M. (2017). The impact of social networks on digital entrepreneurship in knowledge-based companies. Journal of Smart Business Management Studies, 6 (22). 1-22 (In Persian).
- Jafari, I, and Loghmanestraki, S. (2015), The role of social networks in creating and developing small and medium businesses, 2nd International Conference on Management Management and Culture, Retrieved from: https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ICOM02-ICOM02_406.html (In Persian).
- Jenssen, J. I.; Greve, A. (2002), “does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the success of business start-ups?” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, (8), 148-169.
- Jenssen, J., and Greve, A. (2002). Does the degree of redundancy in social networks influence the success of business start-ups? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 8(5), 254-267.
- Kalpic, B., and Bernus, P. (2006). Business process modeling through the knowledge management perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(3), 40-56.
- Khosravi Pour, B. and S. Jaberi. (2017). Women's entrepreneurship - key to achieving sustainable rural development. Scientific Journal of Research Approaches in the Social Sciences, 3 (11): 130-131 (In Persian) (In Persian).
- Kotler, Philip, and Turnr, Ronald E. (2006). Marketing management. Analysis, Planning and Control. Prentice Hall. Eaglewood Cliff.
- Krejcie, R.V. and D.V. Morgan. 1970. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3): 607-610.
- Kwahk, K. Y., and Park, D. H. (2016). The effects of network sharing on knowledge-sharing activities and job performance in enterprise social media environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 826-839.
- Leung, X. Y., Bai, B., and Stahura, K. A. (2015). The marketing effectiveness of social media in the hotel industry: A comparison of Facebook and Twitter. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39(2), 147-169.
- Lin, F. R., Lin, S. C., and Huang, T. P. (2008). Knowledge sharing and creation in a teachers’ professional virtual community. Computers & Education, 50(3), 742-756.
- Maliki Min Bashzargah, M., and Shahriari, M. (2017). Using social media for business in Iran: Challenges and opportunities. World Journal of Media-Persian Edition, 12 (2), 89-108 (In Persian).
- Mangold, W. G., and Faulds, D. J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Business horizons, 52(4), 357-365.
- Namjooyanshirazi, Z. (2014). Capability of microfinance funds for rural women in the development of entrepreneurship and small businesses. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 1 (3). 65-68 (In Persian).
- Rezaei-Moghaddam, K. and H. Izadi. 2019. Entrepreneurship in small agricultural quick impact enterprises in Iran: Development of an index, effective factors and obstacles. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9 (17).1-21.
- Rezaei-Moghaddam, K., & Masoumi, A. (2018). Sustainable rural entrepreneurship: A response to the implications of unlimited rural entrepreneurship development in rural areas. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 5 (2), 83-104 (In Persian).
- Rezaei-Moghaddam, K., Karami, O., and Fatemi, M. (2019). The Comparative Analysis of Marketing Activities among Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Fars Province, Iran. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9 (1), 1-20.
- Salavou, H. E. and J. Halikias. 2009. Strategy types of exporting firms: A view on the basis of competitive advantage. European Business Review, 21 (2): 144-158.
- Schwartz-DuPre, R. L. (2006). Women in debate: from virtual to material. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 27, 106-120.
- Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Successful intelligence as a basis for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19 (2), 189-201.
- Weiser, E. B. (2000). Gender differences in Internet use patterns and Internet application preferences: A two-sample comparison. Cyberpsychology and behavior, 3(2), 167-178.
- Wyld, D. C. (2008). Management 2.0: a primer on blogging for executives. Management Research News, 31(6), 448-483.
- Zali, M., Shot, T., Kordayaj, A., & Najafian, M. (2012). The impact of social networks on business performance: The moderating effect of role model and entrepreneurial motivation (evidence based on GEM data from Iran, Croatia and Denmark). Iranian Journal of Management Research, 16 (2), 91-111(In Persian).